Fig 3. Structural constraints.jpg

Contextual constraints

Dynamic evolution of snake venom phospholipase A2

In this study, we highlight the role of ecological factors, evolutionary histories of diverse snake lineages and structural-functional constraints on snake venom PLA2s in underpinning their evolutionary diversification.

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What's new?


Check out our paper on the second-generation Indian antivenom with nearly five times the potency of current antivenoms.

A new publication on Andaman cobra venom is online.


Paulomi has been awarded the Prime Minister's Research Fellows (PMRF) Fellowship!



Kartik has been awarded the Merck Young Scientist Award, 2021!


Kartik delivers a talk on the ecological venomics of medically important Indian snakes at the International Society for Toxinology Asia-Pacific Conference, Cairns, Australia.

Do visit our YouTube Channel to know more about our research on venoms and snakebites

Here is a brief introduction to our lab and our research

In the Evolutionary Venomics Lab at the Centre for Ecological Sciences (CES), Indian Institute of Science (IISC), we investigate venomous animals and their venoms as model systems to address basic but broad questions in evolutionary biology and genetics. Using state-of-the-art technologies across multiple disciplines, we examine the fascinating evolutionary histories of the enigmatic lineages of venomous animals and their venoms.


A particular emphasis is placed on characterizing the composition, toxicity profiles and the evolutionary dynamics of venoms of the ‘big four’ snakes in India, as the lab will strive to deliver advanced antivenom with a commensurate improvement in safety, specificity, and affordability of treatment. The protein composition, and hence the pathogenic potential of venoms, can exhibit dramatic geographical variation, with different populations of the same species having starkly distinct venom profiles and, consequently, resulting in a significantly reduced antivenom efficiency. Therefore, the lab will unravel intra- and interspecific venom variability in medically significant Indian snakes and utilize this information for the molecular design of effective snakebite therapy.


The other broad aims of the lab include (a) investigating genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes of neglected venomous lineages (e.g., scorpions, spiders, centipedes, jellyfish, Hymenoptera, etc.) to understand the molecular basis of venom production, regulation, and evolutionary diversification; (b) understanding the genetic basis of venom resistance in the venomous animal and its prey/predators; (c) unravelling the evolutionary forces that have shaped the current distribution of venomous animals in the Indian subcontinent, and (d) investigating the therapeutic potential of venom proteins.

Our research is funded by...

DBT-IISc Partnership Program for Advanced Research in Biological Sciences and BioEngineering

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Our lab is supported by...